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Port of Philadelphia 



ITS 
FACILITIES and 

ADVANTAGES 




HARRISBURG.PA.: 
Wm. Sunley Ray, State Piinter 

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Board of Commissioners of Navigation for the 

River Delaware and its Navigable 

Tributaries 



GEO. W. NORRIS, 

President 

J. S. W. HOLTON 
COLEMAN SELLERS. Jr. 
H. H. H. POOLE 
J. CRAIG, Jr. 



GEORGE F. SPROULE. 

Secretar}) 



The Port of Philadelphia 



ITS 



Facilities and Advantages 



PUBLISHED BY THE 



Board of Commissioners of Navigation 

for the River Delaware and its 

Navigable Tributaries 



Compiled and Arranged by 
GEO. F. SPROULE, Secretary 



HARRISBURG, PA. : 

Wm. Stanley Ray, Slate Printer 
1914 



I desire to acknowledge the assistance 
rendered in the preparation of this data by 
Mr. John Meigs, Assistant Director of the 
Department of Wharves, Docks and Fenies. 



Geo. F. SpToule, Secretary 



PORT ADMINISTRATION 



The local administrative authority of the Port of Philadel- 
phia was exercised from the year 1700 imtil 1907 by the Board 
of Wardens for the Port of I'hiladelphia which was a State 
and City department. This system, however, was changed by 
an Act of the Legislature of the State of Pennsylvania ap- 
proved June 8, 1907, which abolished the Board of Wardens, 
the Harbor Master and Master Warden and divided their 
duties between the Department of Wharves, Docks and Ferries, 
a municipal department, and the Board of Commissioners of 
Navigation for the Kiver Delaware and its Navigable Tribu- 
taries, a State Board. 

Under the provisions of this Act of Assembly, the Depart- 
ment of Wharves, Docks and Ferries was given jurisdiction 
over the piers in the City of Philadelphia, the Director of the 
Department, who is appointed by the Mayor of the City, having 
large executive powers. He has authority to condemn and im- 
prove wharf property and is vested with other powers which 
have served to greatly stimulate the up-building of a 
modern port. There is maintained and operated by this De- 
partment a municipal dredging plant, as well as a fleet of ice 
boats to keep open the channel in the winter season. It might 
be well to mention that since the advent of the high powered 
steamers, which have superseded the sailing craft, the keeping 
open of the channel, even during the most severe winters, is no 
longer difficult and the work of the ice boat fleet has been 
minimized. 

The Commissioners of Navigation created by the same act 
of June 8, 1907 have charge of all wharf property on the Dela- 
ware Kiver and its navigable tributaries in both Delaware 
and Bucks Counties; they have power to make regulations 
governing the stationing and anchoring of ships and vessels 
within the entire limits of the Port of Philadelphia and have 
had conferred upon them all the functions exercised by the 

(3) 




Tender "M. S. Quay. 



Haibor Master under the old law; they are vested with au- 
thority to license and regulate the Pennsylvania state pilots. 
The Commissioners, five in number, consist of the Director 
of the Department of Wharves, Docks and Ferries, who is 
ex-officio the President, two representatives appointed by the 
Mayor, one from the Chamber of Commerce and the other from 
the Maritime Exchange, one elected by the Council of the City 
of Chester and one by the Burgess and Council of the Borough 
of Biistol. 

A liarbor ])atrol of the river from Marcus Hook to Bristol 
is maintained by the Board of Commissioners of Navigation, 
under tlie direct supervision of a Port Captain, appointed by 
the Board, the Steamer "M. S. Quay" being used by him for 
this purpose. Naptlui tenders under the charge of Harbor 
Masters are in oi)eration both in Bristol and Chester. A daily 
supervision is exercised over the entire Delaware Eiver water 
front of the State. 



PORT OF PHILADELPHIA 



lu connection with tlie Port of Pliiladcli>liia a fallacions 
idea — caiefull}^ encouraged by some of its rival cities — lias 
existed for many years in the minds of the general public. 
This is that the location of the city, 88 nautical miles from 
the ocean, on a fresh watei- river, is too far away from the 
open sea for it to become a port of the first rank. This belief 
lias been held even by many of its own citizens. They have 
rested self-satisfied in the idea that the city's knoAvn pie- 
eminence in manufacturing made it unnecessary for her to 
seek any other line of commercial activity than the mainte- 
nance of great fabricating i)lants, and have neglected to in- 
form themselves of her present standing and her open oppor- 
tunities for greater eminence in domestic aud over sea 
shipping. 

Few, if any of the world's great ports are located on the 
sea, and most of them, like IMiiladelphia, are at a considerable 
distance from it. Generally, in the old world, they are at the 
extreme head of river navigation. In fact, considering the 
well known low cost of marine transportation compared with 
that by land, the further inland a i)ort is, and the nearer it is 
to the center of population, the more favorable the location, 
provided, of course, that its water approaches are safe and 
ample. Hamburg, in many respects the most perfectly de- 
veloped i)ort in the world, is located 50 miles from the mouth 
of the Elbe Kiver — originally a shallow, narrow, tortuous 
stream incomparable in any single respect with the capacious 
Delaware. 

Among other great ports, London on the Thames is 60 miles 
from the sea, Liverpool on the Merse}" is 15 miles from the sea, 
Antwerp on the Scheldt is 60 miles from the sea. Comins: 
to oui' American i>orts, Boston is S miles from the sea, Balti- 
more is 150 miles from the Capes of the (^hesajjcake where 
])ilots are taken on. New Orleans is 06 miles fioni the jetties 



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City Hall. Height of Tower, 537 Feet. 



at the mouth of the Mississippi, and eveu New York, popuhirly 
supposed to be directly ou the ocean, is approached only 
through 2o miles of buoyed channel. 

From the most reliable statistics available, Philadelphia now 
ranks as the second port in the United States in the amount 
of foieign tonnage. It conies immediately after New York, and 
is fifth in value of foreign trade. That it is easily possible for 
l*hiladelpliia to take its rightful place as the second port of 
the country in every respect, is not doubted by any one having 
actual knowledge of her splendid natural endowments. 

Philadelphia, the principal city of the State of Pennsylvania, 
founded in 1(182 In' William Peun under a grant from King 
James II, and once the Federal Cai)ital and chief city of the 
United States, in the County of Philadelphia, with which it 
is coextensive, is situated in latitude 39°57' N. and longitude 
75°10' W., and lies immediately above the junction of the 
Schuylkill Eiver with the Delaware Kiver. It occupies the 
peninsula about two miles in width between the two rivers, a 
position on two deep water streams affording unlimited op- 
portunity for commercial development, and extends westward 
and southward beyond the Schuylkill including both shores of 
that stream to the limits of tide-water and beyond. It covers 
an area of 129,58:3 sq. mi. or 82,933 acres, measures about 10 
miles by 1(3 miles in extreme dimensions, and supports a popu- 
lation of 1,650,000 who are lodged in 350,000 dwelling houses. 
In this latter particular, the number of individual residences, 
Philadelphia exceeds any city in America, and bids fair, with 
her unlimited capacity for lateral expansion, to rival at no dis- 
tant day the huge English cai)ital. The number of buildings of 
all kinds is nearly 400,000. Her net funded debt is |92,866,- 
355.23, a remarkably healthy financial condition for a city of 
this size. 

The main portion of the city is located on a practically level 
plain 25 to 50 feet above tide level, on which most of the busi- 
ness and manufacturing establishments are located. To the 
westward, northwestward and southwestward lies a rolling 
hill country, which forms an ideal combination with the fluvial 
plain of the central city and affords sites for very popular and 
beautiful residential suburbs. 



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The climate of Phihulelpliia is much the same as that of 
New York, 87 miles by rail, and Baltimore 9(> miles by rail, 
its nearest neighbors. The city being located about midway 
of the Atlantic Coast, its weather is temperate in character, 
and its residents are not subject to the discomforts of the ex- 
tremes of low temperature sufl'ered in the region further north, 
nor the long enervating summers of more southerly ports. The 
general health of the community cannot be excelled by any 
port in the United States. 



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THE APPROACHES FROM THE SEA 



The approacli to the city is by way of Delaware Kiver and 
Bay, the two together forming a commodious tidal estuary 
with natural broad, deep water extending for 35 miles from 
the ocean to the entrance of the improved ship channel, from 
which point a distance of 53 miles to Market Street, Philadel- 
phia, the channel is from 000 to 1,000 feet wide, and is at pres- 
ent 30 feet deep at low tide. It is maintained at this depth 
by dredges of the U. S. Government, which are continually at 
work upon it, and contract work is now under way for deepen- 
ing it to 35 feet, and widening it from 800 to 1,200 feet. This 
latter work is about 20% completed, and it is estimated will 
be entirely finished by 1917. 

Between Cape May on the New Jersey side of the Bay, and 
Cape Henlopen on the Delaware side, which two Capes flank 
the entrance to the lower Bay, the width of the estuary is 10 
miles. It widens to nearly 23 miles at Maurice Elver Cove, a 
few miles above the Capes, and then gradually contracts to 4 
miles in width at Bombay Hook, opposite the entrance to 
the improved channel, and narrowing continually, by the time 
Philadelphia is reached is about one-half a mile wide along 
the main city waterfront. 

The river is excellently lighted from the capes to the mouth 
of the improved channel by powerful lighthouses built in the 
bay along the edge of the limits of deep water, and from the 
entrance of the artificial channel to the city by gas buoys and 
sets of shore range-lights located on the center lines of the 
various reaches of the channel and forming a continuous 
guide from one end of it to the other. More than 50 navigation 
lights are passed between the capes and the city, or an average 
of about one to each two miles. The buoying for day use i« 
equally good in character. 

Fluctuation of tidal level is felt as high up as the citj' of 
Trenton — 33 miles above Philadelphia — but it is not excessive 



12 



at any time and the tidal cuiieiit never exceeds 3 miles per 
hour. The variation between high and low tide is 4.5 ft. at 
the capes, G ft. at Eeedy Island, about half way between the 
capes and the city, 5.5 ft. at Philadelphia, and about 3 ft. just 
below the falls at Trenton, the head of navigation. 

r'lom New Castle, a distance of '2d^ miles below Philadel- 
phia, and extending up to its head waters, the river is fresh 
water, and this is of vast benefit to vessels tying up at this 
port. Phihidel{diia is the only Atlantic coast port situated 
on fresh water. 




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Delaware Breakwater, Cape Henlopen. 




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HARBOR OF REFUGE— DELAWARE BAY 



At the Delaware Capes, eighty-eight nautical miles from 
Philadelphia is one of the safest harbors in the world and the 
most important, as well as the most convenient on the Atlantic 
Coast for vessels seeking freights and for cargoes seeking 
markets. It is situated at the mouth of the river on the south 
side, at the entrance of the Delaware Bay and lies midway be- 
tween New York and Baltimore in the direct track of com- 
merce between the southern and northern states of America. 
The harbor proper occupies a most favorable position, pro- 
tected by the huge stone walls known the world over as the 
Delaware Breakwater. Here is located a branch office of 
The Philadelphia Maritime Exchange, from which the move- 
ments of passing vessels are immediately reported by telegraph 
to the exchange in Philadelphia, 

The harbor of refuge has a protected anchorage area of about 
552 acres, with a minimum low-water depth of 30 feet, and an 
additional area of 237 acres with a minimum low-water depth 
of 24 feet. 

The present project, adopted June 3, 1896, provides for the 
creation of a national harbor of refuge suitable for deep- 
draught vessels by the construction of a breakwater located 
along the eastern branch of the shoal known as the "Shears," 
in accordance with the plans submitted by the Chief of En- 
gineers January 29, 1892. The cost of the work was originally 
estimated at |4,665,000, which estimate was subsequently re- 
duced to 12,350,000. 

Work on the breakwater was commenced May 4, 1897, and 
completed December 11, 1901. The substructure of the break- 
water has a length of 8,040 feet and the superstructure a 
length of 7,950 feet measured on the low-water line. The total 
(juantity of stone deposited in the breakwater was 1,475,270 
tons. Work on the 15 detached piers across the upper end 
of the harbor to protect it from moving ice descending the 
bay was commenced in October, 1900, and completed June 19, 
1903. 



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WATER TERMINALS 



Philadelphia's facilities for handling marine commerce con- 
sist briefly of some 2G7 wharves of all sizes for the accommoda- 
tion of vessels, including 84 individual sections of improved 
bulkhead on the Schuylkill River and the water front termi- 
nals of three trunk line railroads, which lines extend, with 
their connecting roads, over the entire American continent. 
Direct connection by regular lines with steamers sailing at set 
and frequent intervals may be had with London, Liverpool, 
Hamburg, Bremen, Antwerp, Copenhagen, Genoa, Naples, 
Triest, Glasgow, Leith, Rotterdam, the West Indies, Central 
Ameiica, I'anama and Pacific ports via the Isthmian Canal, 
South American ports and nearly all the important ports on 
the Atlantic Coast and Gulf of Mexico. 

l*hiladelphia's total Avater frontage on the Delaware and 
Schuylkill Rivers is about 37 miles, of which 20 are on the 
former and 17 on the latter stream. The main activities of 
the port are centered along about 6 miles of waterfront, ex- 
tending from Greenwich Point, about three miles south of 
Market Street, to Allegheny Avenue, Port Richmond, about 
three miles north of that street, although portions of the 
Schuylkill River handle a considerable traffic, and, owinsi' to 
the large exports of oil from the refineries located thereon, 
nearly 45% of the gross export tonnage of the Port originates 
on this stream. Altogether about one-half of the city front 
is improved and the present wharves afford a total berthing 
s])ace of 102,500 lineal feet, of which about 35,000 lineal feet 
of frontage is capable of accommodating shi])s of heavy 
draught. TJiis would i)rovide space for nearly 100 good sized 
cargo ships at one time. 

The principal maiine terminals at present are those OMiied 
by the city, consisting at this time of 5 modern piers, with 
2 more in progress o^ erection; the wharves of the Pennsyl- 



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vania Eailioad Company, 15 in all; the steamship wharves of 
the Philadelphia and Keading Railway Company, 23 in 
all; 3 steamship piers belonging to the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad Company; and the oil works of the Atlantic 
Refining Company and the Gulf Refining Company on the 
Schuylkill River, having between them about 4,800 feet of im- 
proved bulkhead frontage for the accommodation of large 
ships. 

Besides the above piers for ocean freight, the Merchants 
and Miners Transportation Company and the Clyde Steam- 
ship Company own and operate coastwise terminals, each with 
three piers. 

In addition to the steamship wharves, belonging to these 
various companies, there are many waterfront freight sta- 
tions of the three railroads at which a car float business is con- 
ducted. This, properly speaking, is not marine business at 
all, the car floats merely being loaded with freight cars at var- 
ious outlying railroad yards and towed to the centrally located 
freight handling wharves, situated at convenient points along 
the middle city front. These floats are in eff'ect, merely floating 
sectional car yards and have no real connection with water- 
borne commerce. This business plays so large a part in the 
visible marine activities of New York Harbor, and in the 
tremendous congestion of its water-front streets, that it seems 
only proper to point out that comparatively little of it is 
necessary to be done in Philadelphia, and that consequently 
Philadelphia is not confronted with New York's great street 
traffic problem nor its present necessity for clearing out the 
floating freight yards on its main water front to furnish much 
needed space for bona-fide marine commerce. 

The balance of the water front is developed in connection 
with various manufacturing businesses, and as these wharves 
are used for purposes in connection with the industrial estab- 
lishments owning them, and are not generally available for 
public shipping use, no special mention will be made of them 
except in the case of the ship yards which have played so large 
a part in the development of the river's commerce. Two of the 
largest ship yards on the American Continent are located in 



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the lieart of the harbor within one mile of each other, one of 
them, that of The Wra. Cramp & Sons Ship and Eng:ine Build- 
inj; Company, on the IMiihulolpIiia side of llie river, and tlie 
other, the New York Shipbuilding Company, on tlie New .1(m-- 
sey side. Of approximately the same size, these two yards 
each employ normally about 5,000 workmen. A very large 
part of our new Navy and the American Merchant Marine 
are products of these two establishments. 

Ranking next to these private yards, from a ship building 
point of view, is the Philadeli)hia Navy Yard of the Cnited 
States Government, situated on League Island in the southern 
part of the cit}-, just at the junction of the Schuylkill Avith the 
Delaware River. This establishment is located on a reserva- 
tion containing more than 900 acres of space; it affoids em- 
ployment for upwards of 2,300 men; has approximately 4.5 
miles of deep water front capable of development, on which 
there are already provided piers and bulkheads for the ac- 
commodation of fully 50 large ships, or nearly half of the en- 
tire naval fleet. This is the onl}^ fresh water navy 
yard in the country, and is now the Navy's main repair yard 
and reserve station for vessels or ships laid up in ordinary, or 
out of action service. 



CAMDEN AND GLOUCESTER 



The waterfront of Camden and Gloucester, New Jersey, al- 
though not under the jurisdiction of the City of Philadelphia, 
is in the same customs district, the latter town is the loca- 
tion of the United States Immigration Station for this port, 
and the business interests of these communities are, to a large 
extent, identical with those of Philadelphia. Their combined 
frontage is about 10 miles. Except for one uushedded pier at 
the foot of Cooi)er Street, Camden, there are no public wharves, 
and practically all of the waterfront improvements are for 
the benelit of industrial, rather than slH}>])ing concerns. Only 
about 3 miles of the total frontage is commercially develojK'd 
at present. Although no general freight wharves are main- 



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taiued ou this, the easterly side of the river, ships with cargoes 
destined for local use there can find berths at private wharves 
when necessary. 



CHESTER AND LOWER DELAWARE PORTS 



The principal ports of the river below Philadelphia are 
Chester, 12^ miles, Marcus Hook, 17 miles, Wilmington 24| 
miles, New Castle, 29:^ miles and Delaware City 34 miles. 

The Chester water front is an important adjunct to the 
Port of Philadelphia and is now being rajiidly developed by 
municipal and private capital. Between Chester and Marcus 
Hook in the State of l*ennsylvania and within the limits of the 
Port of Philadelphia are located many industrial and shipping 
enterprises. 

At Eddystone, about twelve miles below Philadelphia, the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1906 purchased a tract of 184 
acres. This tract has since been increased to approximately 
225 acres and extensive shops have been erected on it. The 
Baldwin Locomotive Works own about 825 feet of river front 
property here which will be developed for the purpose of mak- 
ing direct shipments from this locality. 

The City of Chester maintains a fine pier at the foot of 
Market Street for river traffic, numerous steamers stopping 
there for freight and passengers. Below this are located the 
plants of the Tidewater Steel Company, the Seaboard Steel 
Casting Company, the Keystone Plaster Company, the Sharp- 
less Dyewood Company, the Penn Steel Casting and Machine 
Company and many other like industries. 

Approaching the lower limits of the Port at Marcus Hook 
are located the oil works of the Sun Company, the Texas 
Company, the Pure Oil Company and the Union Petroleum 
Company. From this point there is imported and exported 
annuallj^ many million gallons of oil. There are also located 
at Marcus Hook the United States and State Quarantines. 



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CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE CANAL 



At Delaware City is the eastern terminus of the Chesapeake 
and Delaware Canal. This Canal affords an inland passage 
for vessels of limited size and draught between the Ports of 
Philadelphia and Baltimore. It is probable that in a very 
short time this privately owned waterway will be taken over 
and improved by the Federal Government, it being an import- 
ant chain of the Intra-Coastal Waterway between Maine and 
Florida advocated hy the Atlantic Deeper Waterways Asso- 
ciation. 

UPPER DELAWARE PORTS 



In tlie upper reaches of the Delaware, 17f miles above Phila- 
deli)hia is located the Borough of Bristol, within the limits 
of the State and of the Port of Philadelphia. The channel 
approaching this place has been improved by the Federal Gov- 
ernment to an extent that now permits of modern ocean steam- 
ships of limited draught approaching this locality to load 
cargo. Bristol is a thriving manufacturing borough and large 
quantities of cast iron pipe for export are manufactured. At 
this place is located the eastern terminus of the canal owned 
and operated by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. 
This canal penetrates the State to the coal regions and thous- 
ands of tons of anthracite coal are brought to tidewater in 
barges. 

DELAWARE AND RARiTAN CANAL 



In the City of Trenton, the capital of the State of Ne-*" 
Jersey, ;{:} miles above Philadelphia is the western terminus 
of the Delaware and Baritan Canal. This canal extends 
through the Stnte of New Jersey, affording an inland passage 
for vessels ol limited size and draught to the Port of New 
York. Tlic i)urchase and improvement of this canal by the Fed- 
eral Ci(»\ernment is now advocated Iw the Atlantic Dee])er 
Waterways Association, it being one of the links of the Tnlra- 
Coastal chain of inland waterway i>assage from Maine to 
Florida. 



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CUSTOMS DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA 

(j4ct of Congress Approved August 24, 1912) 



The United States Customs district of IMiiladelpliia, in- 
cludes all that part of the State of Pennsylvania lying east of 
79° west longitude, all of the State of Delaware, and all of that 
part of the State of New Jersey not included in the district 
of New York, with district headquarters at Philadelphia, in 
which Philadelphia (to include Camden and Gloucester City, 
Somers Point, Thompsons Point, Tuckerton, N. J.; Chester, 
Pa.; Wilmington, and Lewes, Del., shall be ports of entry. 



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RAILROAD FACILITIES 



The railroad faciiities of IMiiladelpIiia's main water front 
are unique among Atlantic i)ort.s. Three great continental 
trunk line systems, the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Philadel- 
phia and Reading Railway, and the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road maintain well equipped marine terminals within a few 
miles of the heart of the city, at which ships of large size 
can dock and unload with dispatch and free of wharfage. 
The situation of the city on the west or continental side of a 
great river makes it possible for the railroad to connect di- 
rectly with the marine carriers by means of trains run out on 
the wharves alongside of the ships, and renders unnecessary 
the expensive system of lighterage and transfer by car float, 
unavoidable in the port of New York and necessary in some 
degree in most of the other Atlantic ports. 

In addition to the tracks of the Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 
and Reading, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad companies 
running to their own terminal piers, the loug, symmetrical, 
unbroken curve of the main water front is served by the 
Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad Company, a quasipublic cor- 
poration, by means of whose facilities, occupants of any private 
or public wharf in this section of the city can obtain direct 
railroad service from or to any one of the above named rail- 
roads. This is a valuable privilege not enjoyed bj^ any other 
north Atlantic port. Obstacles of natural topography make 
it impossible for aiw other such port to construct a continuous 
belt line railroad covering its entire waterfront, and the im- 
portance of this privilege to ship owners and operators and to 
large shipj^ers cannot be ove: estimated. Practically all of the 
steamship whaives aie provided with railroad tracks running 
for nearly their entire length, usually in sunken pits which 
bring the car floors level with the pier deck, and greatly facili- 
tate the easy, economical haiisrci- of freight. 



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Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station. 




Broad Street Station, Pennsylvania Railroad. 



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MiAuii'Ai. IcE-r.i;EAKEi;, "Joiix Weaver 



As the result of a long series of conferences between muni- 
cipal and railroad authorities, extending over a period of many 
months, in 1913, an agreement was entered into by which the 
railroad facilities on the Delaware Kiver front will bfe greatly 
enlarged and improved, the Belt Line service extended to 
cover a much larger territory, and large additions to the wharf 
equipment of the port made, both by the railroads and the 
municipality. 

The freight rates between Philadelphia and inland points 
are fixed in accordance with its advantageous geographical 
position relative to the great Mississippi region, compared 
with more northerly Atlantic ports. A substantial differential 
has existed for some years in favor of this city over both New 
York and Boston, which under a recent decision of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission was confirmed as a permanent 
advantage, an additional reason why ocean freight should be 
routed by way of Philadelphia rather than more northerely 
ports. This advantage extends to all points in Pennsylvania 
and West Virginia and practically the entire northern portion 
of the Mississippi Valley and Great Lakes region to the nortli- 
west of them. 



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INDUSTRIES 



As a mauufactiiiing and producing metropolis, combiuing 
every kiud and class of creative power in one enormous hive, 
Pliiladeli-hia maintains an eminent position in the van of 
Twentieth century civilization. But it is in the role of one 
of the chief ports and tide Avater terminus of the United States 
that Philadelphia possesses the greatest interest. Her widely 
extended double water frontage, her capacious warehouses, 
bonded and free, and numerous wharves and docks, her huge 
elevators, her great storage accommodations and grain depots, 
markets and abbatoirs, sliii)yards, marine railways and dry- 
docks are unecpialled. 

The leading articles of export are anthracite and bituminous 
coal, petroleum, iron and iron goods, machinery, cotton both 
raw and manufactured, leather, grain, provisions, live stock, 
lumber, fertilizer and tobacco, (liraid Point on the Schuyl- 
kill, is the great seat of grain shipment, and Port Eichmond on 
the Delaware, of the anthracite coal trade. At this latter 
point the plant of the Philadelphia and Heading Railway Com- 
pany is an important factor, and when elaborated to its pro- 
posed full extent, with elevatois, warehouses, etc., many of 
which are already in existence, will constitute one of the most 
extensive industrial establishments in the world. Point Breeze 
on the Schuylkill and (iieenwich Point on the Delaware have 
costly appliances for loading vessels with petroleum and coal. 

There is ship])ed from Philadelphia annually by water up- 
wards of 4,000,000 tons of coal about 759^ of which finds its 
way into the markets of New^ England and the Soutliern States, 
while the balance goes principally to the West Indies. 

While the oil shipments from this Port show a slight falling 
otf in recent years, due to the discoveiy of the product in other 
localities, there is expoited annually from 2r)0,000,000 gallons 
to 400,000,000 callous. 



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Since the erection of the modem ore dischargino- nuichinery, 
Phihidelphia's imports of this product have increased very 
materially, reaching at times 2,000,000 tons per year. 



PHILADELPHIA AND READING ORE HANDLING PLANT 



It is of particular inteiest, to note the electiical equipment 
installed at Port Richmond, Philadelphia, by the Philadeljihia 
and Reading Railway Company, for operating the hoists used 
in unloading the ore from the vessels as they lie at the dock. 

Ore is brought here from countries all over the world, prin- 
cipally from Newfoundland, Norway, Sweden and Cuba, and 
distributed from this point to the various steel plants through- 
out the country. The ore brought in is of an unusually high 
grade, ranging in many cases from 85 to 90 per cent. 

A fire proof, steel, brick and concrete power house has been 
erected at the shore end of the pier in which is installed boilers, 
pumps, steam turbines, generators, etc., for supplying current 
for the entire ore-handling plant and lighting for the Port 
Richmond yards. The building is of sufficient size to duplicate 
the present plant should additional power be required in the 
future. 

The installation is unique among ore handling plants in 
which, of course, the load is always intermittent, in that no 
auxiliary devices whatever are used for maintaining the volt- 
age constant through varying loads, the inherent regulation of 
the machines being so entirely satisfactory that none are re- 
quired. In most plants of this kind fly wheels, liquid resist- 
ance, or some device of similar nature is usually employed to 
maintain a constant voltage, but in this case, the voltage 
variation is only from three to four volts with a range in lead 
on the rotaries from 12,000 to 2,700 amperes. 

After considerable investigation of the ])r()blem it was de- 
cided that the best s^^stem to install, considering it from all 
sides, was steam turbine alternators and rotary converters. A 
small plant located aborrt one and one-half miles distarrt from 
the main power station had to be operated also; therefore, 



32 



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33 

alternating cnnent was selected so it could be transmitted 
readily to the smaller plant, using transformers at l)otb the 
generating and receiving ends. 

The pier which is 704 feeet in length and 69 feet in width 
is built of concrete face walls supported on piling, and filled 
in with earth to a point 15 feet above low water, on which four 
railroad tracks are laid. The face walls of the pier are also 
the foundation for the runwa3^s for 2 Brown Hoist electrically 
operated ore unloaders. These machines travel the length of 
the I ier, spanning four railroad tracks. The machines are 
equip})ed with grabbuckets having a capacity of five (5) tons 
each, which aie operated from a trolley located in the machines 
at a point 50 feet above the tracks on the pier. The trolley 
is carried on a track which extends over the ship, and the 
operator is located in a cab on this trolley, in such a position 
that he always has the bucket in view. 

The ore is deposited from the buckets into a 60-ton re- 
ceiving hopper. This hopper can be moved at right angles 
to the pier and deposit the ore into cars standing on any one 
of the four tracks. On this receiving hopper is arranged a 
scale which permits ore to be weighed and discharged into 
cars in any quantity desired. On this hopper is arranged a 
cab in which are located the United States Custom Inspector 
and the man who operates the hopper. 

These machines are capable of handling 300 tons per hour 
each, from vessels to cars. Some idea of what this actually 
means can be formed from the fact that a 6,000-ton ship com- 
ing into dock and leady to discharge at 7.00 o'clock in the morn- 
ing would be enti]ely emptied by 6.00 o'clock in the evening. 
This would load to their full capacity cars sufficient to make a 
train one and a quarter miles in length. 

Of the four tracks on thejjier, two are loading and two aie 
storage tracks. The cars are delivered from the Port Eich- 
mond yard by gravity and after being ])laced under the ma- 
chines and receiving their load they are removed to thfe end 
of the pier where a tiansfer table is located, and then trans- 
ferred to the storage tracks. After the cars have been de- 
livered to the pier they aie moved along the tracks by a system 
of car haulage. Bv tins arrangement the services of a loco- 



u 



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Two McMyleb Ore Unloaders Have Been Erected by the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company at Girakd 1'oint, Each Capable of Discharging at the 
Rate of 200 Tons Per Hour, or 400 Tons Per Hour for 
I50TII Machines 



iiiotivo will iiol lie i('(iuii('(l until a train oi" loaded cai's is made 
up and ready to he forwarded to destination. 

To set a dej)tli of :>() feet mean low water at tliis pier, it 
was found necessary to remove considerable rock for a depth 
of fifteen (15) IVel. 



35 




Coal Handling Plant, Greenwich Point, Pennsylvania Railroad 



During the twenty hours the capacity of this plant is, in extreme cold 
weather, when cars must be taken through the thawing house, 300 cars. 
At other times, 500 cars. 

Adjacent to the coal dumper is the Greenwich Yard, with a storage ca- 
pacity of about 1,500 loaded coal cars, from which source the coal dumper 
is supplied. 



36 




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37 

GIRARD POINT ELEVATOR 



The big modern rciiiisvlvania Eailroad Company's elevator 
at Girard Point, lMiiladelj)liia, was completed about March 
1st, 1914, and stands as a great tiade monument overlooking 
the river front at the southern end of the city. Tlie cajtacity 
of this elevator is 1,100,000 bushels, and it is claimed tlial it 
is the most rapid grain-handling plant of its kind in America. 
Its cost, with surrounding adjuncts was approximately |1,- 
200.000. Tlie elevator was built for the grain trade of Phila- 
delphia for handling export business. The materials used were 
reinforced concrete and steel on piling foundations, and it is 
absolutely fireproof. 

The elevator is located about 500 feet inland from the dock, 
and grain is delivered to ships for export by means of a con- 
ve^'or gallery containing four conveyor belts, each having a 
capacity of 15,000 bushels per hour or a total of 60,000 bushels, 
which can be delivered to either side of the pier, through dock 
spouts and into the hatches of vessels for export. There is 
docking space for three ships. The conveyor belts in this 
gallery ori^jiuate under the working house, so that it is possible 
to weigh up 100,000 bushels of grain in advance, and ship it 
without re-elevation. On one side of the gallery, there is dock- 
ing room for vessels up to 450 feet in length. On the other 
side of the gallery, the length of dock is 900 feet. Three ocean- 
going vessels can be loaded simultaneously. 

The elevator has an unloading capacity of 240 cars per day 
of ten hours. There is sufficient trackage to accommodate 400 
cars, and twelve receiving hoppers equipped with power 
shovels, also powerful car pulling machinery, so that the serv- 
ices of a shifting engine will not be required after the cars 
are delivered at the elevator. All machinery is operated by 
electric power. 

The working house contains three receiving elevator legs, 
taking grain from the conveyor belts under the twelve receiving 
hoppers, the valves of which hoppers being controlled by in- 
terlocking levers, and also four shipping elevator legs. Each 
of these legs has a ca])acity of 15,000 bushels per hour. There 



38 

are also elcvatiii*;; lejjjs for the cleaners and screeiiiiifjs of less 
capacity. On the first floor, there are four No. 15 Invincible 
Warehouse Sei>arators of the largest size. 

The screenings are elevated by means of a screenings leg to 
the screenings bin in the cupola whicli discharges into a No. 
1) Monitor Dustless Screenings Separator above the bin fh)or. 
This machine makes five separations of grain, seed and screen- 
ings, wliicli are distributed to several small bins in the work- 
ing house. 

In connection with the elevator, there is a Morris Grain 
Drier, which is one of the largest in the country, having a 
capacity of three thousand bushels in four units of 750 bushels 
each, the four cooling units placed directly under each drier 
are of the same cajiacity. After being elevated, the dry grain 
is weighed and distributed into the shipping or storage bins. 

The capacity of the shipping bins is about GU,UUO bushels. 

There is a boiler plant of 450 horse power to furnish steam 
for drying the grain, and the heaters are designed to get 
any temperature from 100 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit. The 
drier is arranged to operate on small lots of grain as well as 
large lots. 

The working-house is approximately 62 by 94: feet in ground 

area and is 202 feet high above the pile cut off. Above the 

first story whicli contains the discharge spouts from the work- 

ing-liouse grain storage bins and the system of belt conveyors 
for loading out vessels, are the working-house storage bins. 

These consist of 24 circular concrete tanks arranged in four 
rows of six each. They are thirteen feet in diameter inside 
measurement, 74| feet high with walls six and seven inches 
thick, and have a combined capacity with the interstice bins 
of 241,200 bushels. 

The cupola above the bins is a four-story structure, 02 feet 
wide and 82 feet in length, with a height of 93 feet, from the 
bin floor, 3(5 inch belt conveyors run to the storage annex for 
transferring grain to the annex bins. On the scale floor are 
four 2,000 bushels Standard Hopper Scales and six 1,400 
bushels Standard Hopper Scales each linving a garner above. 



39 



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The liopi)er scales are of the iron frame type and are all 
equipped with Keed Recording Beams. 

The storage annex is located east of the working-honse and 
connected to it by a conciete tunnel or basement, and a bridge 
at the top of the bins. It comprises 54 reinforced conciete 
circular tanks with a basement and cuj)ola, the tanks rest on 
a concrete slab and pile foundation. Tlie tanks are 15 feet 
inside diameter with seven inch walls and are !)(*> h^^t liigli. 
The cupola houses the 30 inch belt conveyors, each of which 
has a carrying capacity of 15,000 bushels per hour. 

The capacity of the storage annex including the 40 inter- 
stice tanks is 888,500 bushels. 

The elevator has been so constructed that additional storage 
capacity can be added without interfering with the operation 
of the plant. 

SUGAR AND GRAIN TRADE 



Philadelphia refines about 500,000 tons of raw sugar an- 
nually, this being about one-sixth of all the sugar refined in 
the United States, and representing upwards of .'!!50,000,000. 

There are located at this port two plants of The Franklin 
Sugar Refining Company, one at Reed Street and the other 
below the foot of South Street, the one at Reed Street being 
probably the most modern refinery in the world. In addition 
to these two plants are the W. J. McCahan Sugar Refining 
Company at the foot of Tasker Street and the Pennsylvania 
Sugar Company at the foot of Shackamaxon Street. 

The former fleet of American sailing craft trading with the 
West Indies has been replaced by large modern steamships 
carrying from 8,000 to 12,000 tons of sugar, a notable example 
of this type of vessel being the Steamshi]^ ''Pennsylvanian'' of 
the American-Hawaiian Steamship C(»mi»any, wliich arrived 
here on August 24th, 1014, from tiie Hawaiian Islands, carry- 
ing 122,885 bags of sugar consigned to The Franklin Sugar 
Refining Company-. This was the first vessel to arrive at Phila- 
delphia via the I'anama Canal. 



42 




I 43 

Philadelphia's grain trade is one of its most important fac- 
tors, there being three grain elevators located at the Port. 
Since the erection at Girard Point of the new grain elevator 
by the Pennsylvania Kailroad Compan}^, the further develop- 
ment of this industry is anticipated. 



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45 



PILOTAGE RATES ON THE DELAWARE BAY 

AND RIVER 

Under the Laws of the States of Pennsylvania and Delaware 
( Ane-^ied 1899) 





INWARD. 


INWARD. 


INWARD. 






If spoken east ol 


If spoken inside 


If not siKikeu un- 






Five Fathom Bank 


of Five Fathom 


til inside of line 




FEET. 


Lislitsliip, Ol- north 


LiKlitship and out- 


drawn from Cape 


OUTWARD. 




(if lluivt'onl Inlet 


side of line drawn 


Ma.v Light to Cai)e 






Light house, or 


from Cape Ma.v 


llenlopen Light. 






south of Feuwick's 


Lit;ht to fape Hen- 








Island Light. 


lopeu Light. j 




• 


S 


35.i:0' 


32.00 


28.80 


32.00 


Si 


3.. 10 


34.00 


30.60 


34.00 


9 


39. G» 


.36.03 


32.10 


36.00 


9i 


41. SO 


33.00 


31.20 


38.00 


10 


41.0'^ 


40.00 


36.00 


40.00 


lOJ 


46.1^0 


42.00 


3;. 80 


42.00 


11 


48.40 


44.00 


39.60 


44.00 


111 


50.60 


46.00 


41.40 


46.00 


12 


.'■)2.80 


4S.00 


43.20 


48.00 


Vll 


6S.7.-i 


62.50 


56.25 


62.50 


13 


71.50 


65.00 


58.50 


65.00 


13^ 


74.25 


67.50 


60.75 


67.50 


14 


77.00 


70.CO 


63.00 


70.00 


Ul 


79.7.5 


72.50 


65.25 


72.50 


15 


82.50 


75.00 


67.50 


75.00 


l.-j^ 


85.25 


77.50 


69.75 


77.50 


16 


88.00 


80.00 


72.00 


80.00 


16i 


90.75 


82.. 50 


74.25 


82.50 


17 


93.50 


S5.00 


76.50 


85.00 


171 


96.25 


87.50 


78.75 


87.50 


IS 


99.00 


90.00 


81.00 


90.00 


18i 


101.75 


92.50 


83.25 


92.50 


19 


104.50 


95.00 


85.50 


95.00 


19* 


107.25 


9,". 50 


87.75 


97.50 


20 


110. OO 


10 J. 00 


90.00 


100.00 


201 


112.75 


102.50 


92.25 


102.50 


21 


115.50 


105.00 


94.50 


105.00 


211 


118.25 


107. .50 


96.75 


107.. 50 


22 


121. CO 


110. 00 


99.00 


110.00 


2Zl 


123.75 


112.50 


101.25 


112. .50 


23 


126.50 


115.00 


1C3.50 


115.00 


23i 


129.25 


117.. 50 


105.75 


117.50 


24 


132. OJ 


120.00 


108. 00 


120.00 


24* 


134.75 


122.. 50 


110.25 


122.. 50 


2'i 


137.50 


125.00 


112.50 


125.00 


2»l 


140.25 


127.50 


114.75 


127.50 


26 


143.00 


130.00 


117.00 


130.00 


26J 


145.75 


132.50 


119.25 


132. .50 


27 


148.50 


135.00 


121.50 


135.00 


27i 


151.25 


137. .50 


123.75 


137.50 


28 


1.54.00 


140.00 


126.00 


HO. 00 


28S 


156.75 


142.. 50 


12s. 25 


142.50 


29 


159.50 


145.00 


130.50 


145.00 



46 




The Pilot Boat 



THE PILOT SERVICE 



In the Port of Pliiladeli)hia there are two systems of pilots; 
tliose o])eratiiij? under the laws of the State of Pennsylvania 
who are regulated and controlled by the Board of Commission- 
ers of Navigation, and those licensed nnder the laws of the 
State of Delaware, who are governed by a Board of Pilot (.'oni- 
missioners with head(inarters in Wilmington, Delaware. Under 
an Act of Conj»'ress of Anjjnst 7, 1789, States bordering on 
ii\eis are j»ermitted to mal'e jtilotage laws. Until 1881 the 
Slate of Pennsylvania alone enacted pilotage laws and in 
this way the entire })ilotage of the river was centralized in its 
control. In 1881 Delaware enacted laws governing ])ilots and 
l)ih)tage, and while tlie i)ilots are nnder separate control, fric- 
tion has been miuiniized by the formation in 18!>() of a Pilots' 
Association composed of i)ilots licensed by both States. By 
this amalgamation of interests, which was sanctioned by those 
in authority with the approval of the shipping comiiinnity, the 
l)ih)ts were enabled to disjiose of eight sailing crafl and sub- 
stitute one i)()werful steamer known as the "Pliibnlelphia." She 
is assisted by an Auxiliaiy Schooner, the "•!. Ilciiiy l*]dmunds'* 
jiiid in lliis way a |)i()mpl and cnicient jtilotage scrxice is ren- 
dered. At i)erha])s no otliei- I'liited States port are vessels 
handled more expeditiously by the pilots than at IMiiladelphia. 



47 



STATUS OF WHARF OWNERS IN THE STATE 

OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Common and Statute Laws Regulating their Erection and Use 



"■Wharves" in the Port of Philadelphia "are not the private 
property^ of him who erects them and persons who go upon 
them and fasten vessels to them are not trespassers." "The 
licensing the erection of a wharf to enable the owner to make 
a protit of this space is not an unlimited and unrestricted gift." 
"Their main purpose is to secure and improve the commerce 
of the port." "The extension of a wharf into the public high- 
way is an invitation to the public." "The owner is under the 
same obligation as an inn-keeper, to receive those who call, 
provided he has room and they tender a reasonable com- 
pensation." (Degan vs. Dunlap). 

Under the decision in this case it will be seen that the rights 
of the public in the use of wharves in the State of Pennsylvania 
are preserved and guaranteed. No private owner can dero- 
gate to himself the exclusive use of his wharf. The rights of a 
riparian owner extend to high water mark absolutely and to 
low water mark merely in a qualified sense. Between low 
water mark and the exterior or pier head line, fixed by the 
Secretary of War, the water belongs to the Commonwealth, 
The privilege given a riparian owner by the State to extend 
or build a pier is for the purpose of securing and improving 
the commerce of the port. 



48 



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49 



LIST AND DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL PIERS 
IN THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA 



The water-front of tlie City of IMiiladelpliia is extensively 
equipped with wharfaj'e accommodations for vessels of every 
size, the total nund)cr of improved wharf and bulkhead struc- 
tures being- nearly three bundled. 

Of these 159 are ]>r()jecting ])ie]'s, and the balance are in- 
dividual sections of bulkhead frontage develoi)ed by the con- 
struction of timber or concrete bulkliead walls for shipping 
or commercial use. 

A list of the piincipal wharves in the City, with a brief de- 
scription of each is furnislied below. A total of 77 piers are 
described, and these represent the better part of the equipment 
of the port in this line. Of these principal piers 8 are owned 
by the Cit}^ 44 by the Railroads, 4 by Steamship Companies, 
and the balance by various private oAvners and industrial cor- 
porations. 

GENERAL CARGO PIERS— FOREIGN TRADE 



Pier No. 19, North Delaware AVharves (Vine Street), owned by the City 
of Philadelphia. Used by ocean and coastwi.se steamers carryin.u: general 
cargo and passenscrs. Immigration station on upper deck. 166' wide x 
571' long. Substructure, pile and concrete; superstructure, two-story 
steel and concrete shed; depths in docks, 30' M. L. W. on the north, 
side and 30' M. L. W. on the south side; two railroad tracks having 
a capacity of 22 cars; equipped with a portable electric winch, four 
freight elevators and two cargo chutes. 

Pier No. 16, South Delaware Wharves (Dock Street), owned by the City 
of Philadelphia. Used by ocean and coastwise steamers carrying general 
cargo: 120' wide x 582' long. Substructure, concrete on timber piles; 
superstructure, one-story steel and galvanized iron shed ; depths in 
docks, 28' M. L. W. on the north side and 28' M. L. W. on the south 
side; two railroad tracks having a capacity of 22 cars; equipped with 
four portable electric winches. 

i 



50 

Piers Nos. 38 .iihI 40, South Dplawnre Wliarves (Qucon Street), owned by 
City of I'liihulflpliia. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels carrying 
passengers and general cargo. 180' wide x 550' long. Substructure, 
concrete on timber piles; superstructure, two-story steel and concrete 
shed; depths in docks, 30' M. L. W. on the north side and 30' M. L. 
W. on the south side; two railroad tracks. 

Pier No. 34, South Delaware Wharves (below Kenilworth Street), owned 
by the Philadelphia & Reading Railway Company and operated by the 
Independent Pier Conijiany. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels 
carrying passengers and general cargo; 100' wide x 553' long; substruc- 
ture, concrete on timber piles; superstructure, one-story steel frame 
with galvanized iron shed; depths in docks, 28' M. L. W. on the north 
side and 28' M. L. W. on the south side; one railroad track having a 
capacity of 12 cars; equipped with portable electric winches. 

Pier No. 28, South Delaware Wharves (Bainbridge Street), owned by the 
Franklin Sugar Refining Company and operated by the Independent 
Pier Company. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels carrying general 
cargo; 77' wide x 543' long; substructure, steel on timber piles; super- 
structure, one-story steel frame with galvanized iron shed ; depths in 
docks, 21' M. L. W. on the north side and 22' M. L. W. on the south 
side; one railroad track having a capacity of 12 ears; equipped with 
electric telpherage system. 

Pier No. 24, North Delaware Wharves (Callowhill Street), owned by the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway Company. Used by foreign and coast- 
wise vessels cai'rying general cargo; 150' wide x 570' long. Substruc- 
ture, timber pile; superstructure, one-story timber frame and galvanized 
iron shed; depths in docks, 26' M. L. W. on the north side and 28' 
M. L. W. on the south side; two railroad tracks having a capacity of 
24 cars ; equipped with four pole derricks having a capacity of one ton 
each . 

Pier No. 25, North Delaware Wharves (Willow Street), owned by the 
Philadelphia <& Reading Railroad Company. Used by foreign and coast- 
wise vessels carrying general cargo; 102' wide x 496' long. Sub- 
structure, timber pile and stone; superstructure, one-story timber 
frame and galvanized iron shed; depths in docks 27' M. L. W. on the 
north side and 27' M. L. W. on the south side; one railroad track, 
having a capacity of 12 cars; equipped with swinging boom derrick 
having a capacity of two tons, chain hoist, and traveling tracks across 
the pier. 

Pier No. 27, North Delaware Wharves (Noble Street), owned by the Phila- 
delphia & Reading Railway Company. Used by foreign and coastwise 
vessels carrying general cargo; 150' wide x 528' long; substructure, 
concrete on timber piles; superstructure, two-story timber frame and 
galvanized iron shed; depths in docks, 27' M. L. W. on the north side 
and 22' M. L. W. on tlie south side; four railroad tracks having a ca- 
pacity of 44 cars; e(|uipped with three cargo chutes and one barrel 
chute, and one freight elevator having a capacity of one ton. 



51 

Pier A, Port Richmoiul (Cambria Street), owned by the Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway Company. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels 
carrying general cargo; 168' wide x 680' long; substructure, timber 
crib on piles; superstructure, one-story timber frame and galvanized 
iron shed; depths in docks, 28' M. L. W. on the north side and 26' 
M. L. W. on the south side; two railroad tracks having a capacity of 
36 cars; equipped with a traveling chain hoist. 

Pier C, Port Richmond (below Neff Street), owned by the Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway Company. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels 
carrying general cargo; 150' wide x 645' long; depths in docks, 28' M. 
L. W. on the north side and 26' M. L. W. on the south side; sub- 
structure, timber crib; superstructure, one-story timber and galvanized 
iron shed; two railroad tracks having a capacity of 22 cars. 

Pier D, Port Richmond (above Neft" Street), owned by the Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway Co. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels carrying 
general cargo; 200' wide x 677' long; substructure, concrete on timber 
piles; superstructure, two-story timber frame and galvanized iron 
shed; depths in docks, 30' M. L. W. on the north side and 28' M. L. 
W. on the south side; four railroad tracks having a capacity of 42 cars. 

Pier G, Port, Richmond (Clearfield Street), owned by the Philadelphia & 
Reading Railway Co. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels carrying 
heavy freight and railroad ties; 142' wide x 715' long; substructure, 
timber crib; no superstructure; depths in docks, 18' M. L. W. on the 
north side and 20' M. L. W. on the south side; eight railroad tracks 
having a capacity of 80 cars ; equipped with one full arc revolving 
crane having a capacity of 50 tons, and two locomotive cranes having 
a capacity of 3J tons each. 

Pier No. 48, South Delaware Wharves (above Washington Avenue), owned 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Used by foreign and coastwise 
vessels carying general cargo; 102' wide x 686' long; substructure, 
pile and timber; superstructure, one-story frame shed equipped with 
grain conveyors and loading chutes leading from a 200,000 bushel eleva- 
tor at head of wharf. Depths in docks, 27' M. L. W. on the north side 
and 28' M. L. W. on the south side; one railroad track having a ca- 
pacity of 11 cars. 

Pier No. 53, South Delaware Wharves (below Washington Avenue), owned 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Used by foreign and coastwise 
vessels carrying passengers and general cargo ; immigration station at 
head of pier; 152' wide x 700' long; substructure, timber pile and con- 
crete ; superstructure, one-story steel frame and galvanized iron shed ; 
depths in docks, 28' M. L. W. on the north side and 28' M. L. W. on 
the south side ; one railroad track having a capacity of 15 cars ; equipped 
with five 20-H. P. electric winches. 



I'icr No. 55, South Delaware Wharv«'s Cbelmv Federal Street), owned by 
the Pennsylvauia Railroad Coiupauy. Used by foreign and coastwise 
vessels carrying passengers and general cargo; 152' wide x 649' long; 
substructure, timber piles; superstructure, one-story steel frame and 
galvanized iron shed; depths in ducks, 28' M. L. W. on the north side 
and 1.5' M. L. W. on the south side; one railroad track having a ca- 
pacity of 15 cars; e(iuipped with six 20 II. P. electric winches. 

Tier No. 2, Girard Point (Schuylkill River), owned by the Pennsj'lvania 
Railroad Coiiipany. Used by ocean and coastwise steamers carrying 
cement, refractory products and general cargo; 2.35' wide x 9.50' long; 
substructure, timber pile and concrete; superstructure, two one-story 
frame and galvanized iron sheds; depths in docks, 28' M. L. W. nn the 
north side and 28' M. L. W. on the south side; eleven railroad tracks 
having a capacity of HS cars. 



GENERAL CARGO PIERS— COASTWISE TRADE 



Pier No. 10, North Delaware Wharves (Race Street), owned by the City 
of Philadelphia. Used by coastwise and foreign steamers carrying fruit, 
salt, and general cargo; 80' wide x 539' long: substructure, timber 
pile; superstructure, two-story steel and galvanized iron shed; depths 
in docks; 18' INI. L. W. on the north side and 26' M. L. \V. on the 
south side; one railroad track having a capacity of 11 cars; 2nd deck 
used for recreation purposes. 

Pier No. 1, North Delaware Wharves (above Market Street), owned by the 
Estate of Stephen (lirard. Used by coastwise steamers carrying general 
cargo; 99' 9" wide x .556' long; substructure, timber piles; superstruc- 
ture, one-story timber frame; depth in dock on north side, 16' M. L. W. 

Pier No. 2, North Delaware Wharves (above Market Street), owned by 
the Estate of Stephen Girard. Used by coastwise steamers carrying 
general cargo; 83' wide x .545' long; substructure, timber piles; super- 
structure, (ine-story timber frame; depths in docks, 16' M. L. W. on 
the north side and 16' M. L. W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 3, North Delaware Wharves (below Arch Street), owned by tk • 
Estate of Thomas Clyde. Used by coastwise steamers carrying general 
cargo; 88' wide x 542" long: substructun-, ti!ni)er piles: superstructure, 
one-story timber frame; depths in docks, 16' M. L. W. on the north 
side and 16' M. L. W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 5, North Delaware Wharves (above Arch Street), owned by the 
United Fruit ( 'uniii.iiiy . Used l)y steamers carryiiiu fruit; 71' wide x 
.540' long; substructure, timber pile; superstructure, one-story timber 
frame and galvanized iron shed; depths in docks, 22' M. L. W. on 
the north side and 2(r .M . L. W. on the south side. 



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Pier No. 18-20, South Delaware Wharves (above Piue Street), owned by 
the Merchants and Miners Transporation Company. Used by coastwise 
steamers carrying passengers and general cargo; 304' wide x 591' long; 
substructure, timber piles; superstructure, one-story timber and steel 
frame galvanized iron shed ; equipped with two steam winches and three 
portable electric winches. Depths in docks, 25' M. L. W. on the 
north side and 22' M. L. W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 3, South Delaware Wharves (above Chestnut Street), owned by 
the Baltimore and Philadelphia Steamboat Company. Used by coast- 
wise and foreign steamers carrying fruit, general cargo and passengers; 
80' wide x 560' long; substructure, timber piles, superstructure, one- 
story timber frame and galvanized iron shed; depths in docks 16' M. 
L. W. on the north side and 16' M. L. W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 46, South Delaware Wharves (below Christian Street), owned by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Used by coastwise vessels carry- 
ing general cargo; 102' wide x 645' long; substructure, timber piles, 
superstructure, one-story frame and galvanized iron shed. Depths in 
docks, 15' M. L. W. on the north side and 27' M. L. W. on the south 
side; one railroad track having a capacity of 11 cars. 

Pier No. 56, South Delaware Wharves (foot of Wharton Street), owned by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Used by coastwise vessels carry- 
ing general cargo; 81' wide x 389' long; substructure, timber piles; super- 
structure, one-story steel frame and corrugated iron shed ; depths in 
docks, 18' M. L. W. on the north side and 24' M. L. W. on the south 
side; one railroad track having a capacity of seven cars. 

Pier No. 22, South Delaware Wharves (below Pine Street), owned by the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company. Used by coastwise vessels 
carrying pasengers and general cargo; 134' wide x 570' long; substruc- 
ture, timber pile; superstructure, one-story steel and timber frame gal- 
vanized iron shed; one railroad track having a capacity for 10 cars. 
Depths in docks 22' on the north side and 16' M. L. W. on the south 
side. 

GENERAL CARGO PIERS-RI\'ER AND BAY TRADE 



Pier No. 4, North Delaware Wharves (Arch Street), owned by the City 
of Philadelphia. Used by river steamers carrying passengers and gen- 
eral cargo; 80' wide x 530' long; substructure, timber pile; superstruc- 
ture, one-story steel frame and galvanized iron shed ; depths in docks, 
20' M. L. W. on the north side and 20' M. L. W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 5, South Delaware Wharves (Chestnut Street), owned by the City 
(if Philadelplii.-i . Used by river steamers carrying passengers and gen- 
eral cargo : secnnd deck used for recreation purposes; 80' wide x 554' 
long; substructure, timber pile; superstructure, one-story steel frame 
and galvanized iron shed; dei)tli in dock on north side, 18' M. L. W. ; 
f'luippiMl with one cli.iin hoist, 3-ton capacity. 



55 

COAL CARGO PIERS 



Pier No. 18, Port Richmoiul (below Huntingdon Street), owned by the 
Pliiladelphia & Reading Railway Company; used by foreign and coast- 
wise vessels carrying coal; 70' wide x 763' long; substructure, con- 
crete on piles; superstructure, coal trestle; depths in docks, 28' M. L. 
W. on the north side and 30' M. L. W. on the south side; 4 tracks, 
64-car capacity. 
Pier No. 16, Port Richmond (above Huntingdon Street), owned by the 
Philadelphia «& Reading Railway Company; used by foreign and coast- 
wise vessels carrying coal; 56' wide x 441' long; substructure, timber 
crib; superstructure, timber trestle; depths in docks 22' M. L. AV. on 
the north side and 22' M. L. W. on the south side; one track each 
side; two gravity tracks, capacity, 30 cars. 
Pier No. 13, Port Richmond (south of Lehigh Avenue), owned by the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway Company; used by foreign and coast- 
wise vessels carrying coal; 80' wide x 436' long; substructure, timber 
crib; superstructure, miscellaneous buildings; depths in docks, 23' M. 
L. W. on the north side and 23' M. L. W. on the south side; four 
tracks; capacity 12 cars; equipped with six pairs of 30' masts and 
tackle with steam winch. 
Pier No. 12, Port Richmond (below Lehigh Avenue), owned by the Phila- 
delphia & Reading Railway Company. Used by foreign and coastwise 
vessels carrying coal; 48' wide x 200' long; substructure, timber crib; 
superstructure, timber trestle; depths in docks; 16' M. L. W. on the 
north side and 15' M. L. W. on the south side; three railroad tracks, 
15-car capacity. 
Pier No. 11, Port Richmond (Lehigh Avenue), owned by the Philadelphia 
& Reading Railway Company. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels 
carrying coal; 81' wide x 709' long; substructure, concrete on piles; 
superstructure, coal trestle; depths in docks 26' M. L. W. on the north 
side and 26' M. L. W. on the south side; two storage tracks, one gravity 
track, capacity 24 cars. 
Pier No. 10, Port Richmond (above Lehigh Avenue), owned by the Phila- 
delphia & Reading Railway Company. Used by foreign and coastwise 
vessels carrying coal; 50' wide x 224' long; substructure, timber crib; 
superstructure, timber trestle; depths in docks, 14' M. L. W. on the 
north side and 18' M. L. W. on the south side; three railroad trucks, 
capacity 12 cars. 
Pier No. 1, Greenwich Point (above Pollock Street), owned by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company. Used by foreign and coastwi.se vessels 
carrying coal; 100' wide x 500' long; substructure, timber crib; super- 
structure, timber trestle; depths in docks, 12' M. L. W. on the north 
side and 10' M. L. W. on the south side; four railroad tracks, ca- 
pacity 40 cars. 



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Pier No. 2, Greeuwich Point (below Pollock Street), owned by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels 
carrying coal; 60' wide x 500' long; substructure, timber crib; super- 
structure, timber trestle; depths in docks, 12' M. L. W. on the north 
side and 12' M. I^. W. on the south side; four railroad tracks, capacity 
40 cars. 

Pier No. 3, Greenwich Point (above Packer Street), owned by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company. Used by foreijrn and coastwise vessels 
carrying coal; 60' wide x 800' long; substructure, timber pile and con- 
crete; no superstructure; depths in docks, 26' M. L. W. on the north 
side and 12' M. L. W. on the south side; one railroad track to feed car 
dumper and one to run empties off pier ; equipped with one McMyler 
car dumper for unloading coal cars, capacity, 3,000 tons per hour. 

Pier No. 4, Greenwich Point (below Packer Street), owned by the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company. Used by coastwise vessels carrying coal; 62' 
wide X 725' long; substructure, timber pile; superstructure, timber 
trestle; depths in docks, 24' M. L. W. on the north side and 26' 
M. L. W. on the south side; four railroad tracks, capacity, 44 cars. 

Pier No. 6, Greenwich Point (below Packer Street), owned by the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels carry- 
ing coal; 62' wide x 725' long; substructure, timber pile; superstruc- 
ture, timber trestle; depths in docks, 26' M. L. W. on the north side 
and 2h' M. L. W. on the south side; three railroad tracks, capacity, 
36 cars. 

Pier No. 81, South Delaware Wharves (above Jackson Street), owned by 
the Baltimore <& Ohio Railroad Company. Used by foreign and coast- 
wise vessels carrying coal; 42' wide x 574' long; substructure, timber 
pile; superstructure, timber trestle; depths in docks, 14' M. L. W. on 
the north side and 15' M. L. W. on the south side; two railroad tracks, 
capacity 24 cars. 

ORE CARGO PIERS 



Pier No. 14, Port Richmond (above Huntingdon Street), owned by the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway Company. Used by foreign and coast- 
wise vessels carrying ore; 70' wide for a distance of 314' from the 
outshore end and 133' wide for a distance of 460'— total length, 774'. 
Substructure, concrete on piles; no superstructure; depths in docks, 
22' M. L. W. on the north side and 26' M. L. W. on the south side; 
six railroad tracks, capacity 86 cars; equipped with two McMyler un- 
loaders, capacity 300 tons per hour, each. 

Pier No. 1, Girard Point, Schuylkill River, owned by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company. Used by foreign and coastwise vessels carrying 
ore; 50' wide x 1050' long; substructure, timber pile and concrete; 
no superstructure; depth in dock on north side 28' M. L. W. Two 
railroad tracks, capacity 26 cars; eiiuipped with two McMyler unloaders, 
capacity 400 tons per hour, each. 



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Pier No. 93, South Delaware Wharves (below Porter Street), owned by 
the Penusylvauia Salt Manufacturing Company ; used by foreign and 
coastwise steamers carrying chemicals and ores; 94' wide x 430' 
long; substructure, solid timber crib; no superstructure; depths in 
docks, 15' M. L. W. on the north side and 8' M. I.. W. on the south 
side; three railroad tracks, capacity, 24 cars. 

Piers No. 92, South Delaware Wharves (below Porter Street), owned by 
the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company ; used by foreign and 
coastwise stoaraers carrying chemicals and ores ; 73' wide x 462' 
long; substructure, timber crib; superstructure, miscellaneous build- 
ings; depths in docks, 20' M. L. W. on the north side and 15' M. L. 
W. on the south side; three railroad tracks, capacity 24 cars; equipped 
with steel towers with traveling tackle, steam winch and light steam 
derrick . 

GRAIN CARGO PIERS 



Pier B, Port Richmond (above Cambria Street), owned by the Philadel 
phia & Reading Railway Company. Used by foreign, coastwise and 
river steamers carrying grain; 140' wide x 645' long; substructure, tim- 
ber crib; superstructure, brick and frame elevator, capacity, 1,500,000 
bushels; depths in docks, 28' M. L. W. on the north side and 28' 
M. L. W. on the south side; four tracks, capacity 40 cars; equipped 
with grain chutes and unloaders, dryers, etc. 

Pier No. 3, Girard Point, Schuylkill River, owned by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company. Used by foreign and coastwise steamers carrying 
grain; 50' wide x 860' long; substructure, pile and concrete; super- 
structure, steel trestleway carrying grain conveyor and loading chutes 
leading from steel and concrete elevator at head of pier; capacity of 
elevator, 1,100,000 bushels; capacity of conveyor, 60,000 bushels per 
hour; depths in docks, 28' M. L. W. on the north side and 28' M. 
L. W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 4, Girard Point, Schuylkill River, owned by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company. Used by foreign and coastwise steamers carrying 
grain; 100' wide x .390' long; substructure, timber pile and stone; super- 
structure, frame and galvanized iron elevator, capacity of elevator, 
550,000 bushels; depths in docks, 26' M. L. W. on the north side and 
24' M. L. W. on the south side; three railroad tracks, capacity 24 
cars. 

LUMBER CARGO PIERS 



Pier No. 179, North Delaware Wharves (above Westmoreland Street), 
owned by Wm. I^. Ludascher. Used by coastwise vessels carrying 
lumber; 110' wide x (>42' long; substructure, concrete on piles; no 
superstructure; depths in docks, 15' M. L. W. on the north side and 
15' M. L. W. on the south side; one railroad track, capacity 10 cars; 
equipped with one full arc locomotive crane, capacity 5 tons. 



00 

Pier No. 181, North Delaware Wharves (above Westmorelaud Street), 
owned by Wm. L. laidascher. Used by coastwise vessels carrying 
lumber; 82' wide x 642' loug ; substructure, concrete on timber piles; 
no superstructure; depths in docks, 15' M. L. W. on the north side 
and 15' M. L. W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 37-38, North Delaware Wharves (above Poplar Street), owned by 
Edw. F. Hen.son. Used by coastwise vessels carrying lumber; 240' 
wide X 510' Imig; substructure, timber pili' and concrete on timber 
piles; superstructure, one-story frame shed; depths in docks, 14' M. 
L. W. on the north side and 18' M. L. W. on the south side; three 
railroad sidings, capacity 17 cars; e(iuipped with four electrically oper- 
ated bridge cranes, capacity 3 tons each. 

Pier No. 35^, North Delaware Wharves (above Fairmount Avenue), owned 
by the Estate of Thomas H. Powers. Used by coastwise vessels 
carrying lumber; 100' wide x 573' long; substructure, timber crib; 
superstructure, one-story timber frame; depths in docks, 16' M. L. W. 
on the north side and 16' M. L. W. on the south side; equipped with 
light wooden derrick. 

Pier No. 36, North Delaware Wharves (above Canal Street), owned by the 
Estate of Thomas H. Powers. Used by coastwise vessels carrying 
lumber; 86' wide x 602' long; substructure, timber crib; superstruc- 
ture, small timber shed inshore; depths in docks, 16' M. L. W. on the 
north side and 15' M. L. W. on the south side; one railroad track, 
capacity 8 cars. 

Pier No. 57, South Delaware Wharves (above Reed Street), owned by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Used by coastwise vessels carry- 
ing lumber; 102' wide x 472' loug; substructure, timber crib; no super- 
structure; depths in docks, 24' M. L. W. on the north side and 26' 
M. L. W. on the south side; four railroad tracks, capacity 40 cars; 
equipped with derrick mast steam hoist. 



MISCELLANEOUS CARGO AND INDUSTRIAL PIERS 



Pier No. 59, South Delaware Wharves (below Reed Street), owned by 
Spreekles Sugar Refining Co. Used by foreign and coastwise steamers 
carrying sugar; 80' wide x 490' long; substructure, timber crib; super- 
structure, two-story timber frame .nul galvanized iron shed; depths in 
docks, 26' M. U. W^ on the north side and 25' M. L. W. on the 
south side. 

Pier No. 60, South Delaware Wharves (below Re(>(l Street), own( d hy 
Spreekles Sugar Refining Co. Used by fi>rei;,'n .nul coastwise 
steamers carrying sugar; 80' wide x 537' long. Substructure, timber 
crib; superstructure, timber frame and galvanized iron shed; depths in 
docks, 25' M. L. W. on the north side and 22' M. L. W. on the 
south sid<' ; equipped witli electric telpherage .system, capacity, 2,500 
lbs., eacli. 



61 

Pier No. 61, South Delaware Wharves (Dickinson Street), owned by 
Spreckles Sugar Refining Co. Used by foreign and coastwise 
steamers carrying sugar; 75' wide x 595' long; substructure, timber 
crib; superstructure, timber frame and galvanized iron shed; depths 
in docks, 22' M. I.. W. on tlie north side and 22' M. L. W. on the 
south side; equipped with electric telpherage system, capacity 2,500 
lbs. each, and portable electric winches. 

Pier No. 67, South Delaware Wharves (below Tasker Street), owned by 
McCahan Sugar Refining Co. Used by foreign and coastwise steamers 
carrying sugar and molasses; 61' wide x 472' long; substructure, timber 
crib; no superstructure; depths in docks, 24' M. L. W. on the north 
side and 5' M. L. W. on the south side; equipped with one portable 
combination electric derrick and winch, and one pole derrick. 

Pier No. 68, South Delaware Wharves (above Morris Street), owned by 
McCahan Sugar Refining Co. Used by foreign and coastwise steamers 
carrying sugar and molasses; 44' wide x 488' long; substructure, timber 
crib ; suprestructure, wood frame and galvanized iron shed ; depths in 
docks, 5' M. L. W. on the north side and 20' M. L. W. on the south 
side; equipped with three portable combination electric derricks and 
winches. 

Pier No. 69, South Delaware Wharves (below Morris Street), owned by 
McCahan Sugar Refining Co. Used by foreign and coastwise steamers 
carrying sugar and molasses; 46' wide x 485' long; substructure, timber 
crib; no superstructure; depths in docks, 20' M. L. W. on the north 
side and 6' M. L. W. on the south side; equipped with molasses pump 
and pipe line. 

Pier No. 103, South Delaware Wharves (above Bigler Street"), owned by 
Adam Louth. Used by coastwise vessels carrying fertilizers; 40' 
wide X 250' long; substructure, solid crib with stone facing; superstruc- 
ture, two-story timber frame; depths in docks, 10' M. L. W. on the 
north side and 9' M. L. W. on the south side; equipped with narrow- 
gauge hand railway. 

Pier No. 104, South Delaware Wharves (Bigler Streetl, owned by Adam 
Louth. Used by coastwise vessels carrying fertilizers; 60' wide x 
335' long; substructure, solid timber; superstructure, one-story timber 
frame; depths in docks, 10' M. L. W. on the north side and 10' M. L. 
W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 105, South Delaware W^harves (bi'low Hiulei- Sti'eot), owned by 
Union Fertilizer Co. Used by coastwise vessels carrying fertilizers; 
61' wide X 405' long; substructure, solid timber crib outshore, concrete 
pedestals on timber piles inshore; superstructure, two-story timber 
frame; depths in docks, 10' M. L. W. on the north side and 10' M. L. 
W. on the south side; equipped with two swinging boom steam derricks 
with two-yard steel bucket. 



62 

Pier Xo. 67, North 1 )(!.i\varc Wharves (Berks Street), owned by DeFrain 
Sand Co. Used by river craft carrying sand and gravel; 65' wide x 
4.50' Ion.!?; sub.struc-turc, coucrote on timber piles; superstructure, tim- 
ber storage bins; depth in docks, U' M. L. W. on the north side and 
12' ]M. L. W. on the south side; one railroad track, capacity 8 cars; 
equipped with three full circle revolving electric derricks, capacity, IJ 
tons, and fifteen tmi per liour electric endless belt conveyors for sand 
and gravel . 

Pier No. 34, North Delaware Wharves (below Fairmount Avenue), owned 
by Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. Used by coastwise vessels 
carrying railroad ties, sand, gravel and paving blocks; 120' wide x .530' 
long; substructure, concrete on timber piles; no superstructure; depths 
in docks, 18' M. L. W. on the north side and 16' M. L. W. on the 
south side; trolley connection; equipped with one electric locomotive 
crane. 

Pier No. 43, North Delaware Wharves (below Laurel Street), owned by 
Philadelphia & Heading Railway Company. Used by coastwise 
vessels carrying railroad ties, sand, gravel and lumber; 132' wide x 
460' long; substructure, solid crib and timber piles; no superstructure; 
depths in docks, 16' M. L. W. on the north side and 16' M. L. W. 
on the south side; three railroad tracks; capacity 54 cars; siding, ca- 
pacity 6 cars; equipped with one 20-ton chain hoist. 

Pier No. 50, North Delaware Wharves (above Shackamaxon Street), owned 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Used by coastwise vessels 
carrying raih'oad ties, sand, gravel and lumber; 168' wide x 550' long; 
substructure, solid crib and timber pile; no superstructure; depth in 
dock on north side, 24' M . L. W. ; six railroad tracks, capacity 113 
cars; equipped with one traveling bridge crane, capacity 52 tons. 



RAILROAD WATERFRONT FREIGHT STATIONS 



Pier No. 8, South Delaware Wharves (above Walnut Street^, owned by 
the Philadelphia t& Reading Railway Company. Used by car floats for 
harbor transfer; 94' wide x .562' long; substructure, timber crib and 
timber pib- ; superstructure, one-story timber frame and gMJvauized iron 
shed; depths in docks, IS' M. L. W. on the north side ,iih1 li!' M. L. 
W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 36, South Delaware Wharves (below Fitzwater Street), owned 
by the Pliiladeli»hia «& Reading Railway Company. Used by car floats 
for liarlior transfer: ISO' \vi(b' x 262' long: substructure, concrete on 
Itiles ; superstructure, one-story steel frame and galvanized iron shed; 
concrete bulkhead shed; depths in docks, 16' M. L. W. on the north 
side and 16' M. L. W. on the south side. 



G3 

Pier I, Port Richmond (Allegheny Avenue), owned by the Phihidelphia iV: 
Reading Railway Co. Used by car floats for harbor transfer; 130' 
wide X 188' long; substructure, crib and iloat-bridge ; no superstructure; 
depth in dock, 15' M. L. W. ; railroad connection. 

Pier No. 12, North Delaware Wharves (above Race Street), owned by the 
Pennsylvania Company for Insurance on Lives and Granting Annuities. 
Used by car floats for harbor transfer; 71' wide x 540' long; substruc- 
ture, timber piles; superstructure, one-story timber frame and gal- 
vanized iron shed; depths in docks, 10' M. L. W. on the north side and 
14' M. L. W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 11, North Delaware Wharves (above Race Street), owned by the 
City of Philadelphia. Used by car floats for harbor transfer; 59' wide 
X .340' long; substructure, timber piles; superstructure, one-story tim- 
ber frame and galvanized iron shed; depths in docks, 15' M. L. W. on 
the north side and 12' M. L. W. on the south side. 

Pier No. 40, North Delaware Wharves (below Laurel Street), owned by 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company. Used by car floats for har- 
bor transfer; 64' wide x 472' long; substructure, timber crib and piles; 
superstructure, one-story open frame shed; depth in dock, 15' M. L. 
W. ; railroad connection. 

Pier No. 24, South Delaware Wharves (below Lombard Street), owned 
by the P.altimore & Ohio Railroad Company. Used by car floats for 
harbor transfer; 94' wide x 554' long; substructure, timber piles; su- 
pL>rstructure, one-story timber frame and galvanized iron shed ; depths 
in docks, 16' M. L. W. on the north side and 12' M. L. W. on the 
south side; two railroad tracks, capacity 20 cars; equipped with two 
porta l)le steam winches and three portable electric winches. 

Pier Nos. 62 and 63, South Delaware Wharves (above Tasker Street), 
owned by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company. Used by car 
floats for harbor transfer; substructure, timber crib; no superstructure; 
depth in dock, 15' M. L. W. ; railroad connections. 

Pier No. 14, South Delaware Wharves (above Dock Street), owned by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Co. Used by car floats for harbor transfer; 
120' wide x 576' long; substructure, timber pile; superstructure, one- 
story steel frame and galvanized iron shed; depths in docks, 18' M. 
L. W. on the north side and 16' INI. L. W. on the south side; one rail- 
road track, capacity 11 cars. 

Pier No. 10-11 South Delaware Wharves (below Walnut Street), owned by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. Used by car floats for harbor transfer; 
185' wide x 567' long; substructure, timber pile; supi-rstructurc, one- 
story steel frame and galvanized iron shed; second floor, inshore oflices; 
depths in docks, 15' M. L. W. on the north side and 15' ^M. L. W. on 
the south side. 

Pier No. 13-15 North Delaware Wharves (below Vine Street), owned by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company ; used by car floats for harbor 
transfer; 233' wide x 305' long; substructure, timber piles; superstruc- 
ture, one-story steel frame and galvanized iron shed; depth in dock, 
16' M. L. W. ; six railroad tracks, capacity 20 cars. 



64 



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65 



HARBOR AND ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS 

Adopted by ihe Board of Commissioners of Navigation for the Ricer Delarvare 
and its Navigable Tributaries, at a regular stated meeting held June 7, 
1909, in accordance with authority conferred by an 
Act of Asssembly, of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, approved June 8, 1907 



All vessels arriving at the Port of Philadelphia must report 
at the office of the Commissioners of Navigation, 348-351 
Bourse Building, within twenty-four hours after arrival, and 
before leaving the port must report their clearance. Penalty 
for neglecting to report, |10. 



1. VESSELS WILL BE ALLOWED TO ANCHOR IN 
THE DELAWARE RIVER AS FOLLOWS: 



MARCUS HOOK ANCHORAGE 
To the South Eastward of Schooner Ledge Range. 



FORT MIFFLIN ANCHORAGE 

From the lower end of Fort Mifflin to a point south of the 
prolongation of the Horse Shoe Lower Range Lights, and to 
the westward of the Schuylkill Range Lights and Fort Mifflin 
Bar Range Lights. 



LEAGUE ISLAND ANCHORAGE 

East of the mouth of the Schuylkill river and north of the 
channel marked b}^ the Lower Horse Shoe White Range Lights, 
and to a j>oint oi)i)osite Broad Street. 

5 



GREENWICH POINT ANCHORAGE 

East of the lines drawn between three anchorage buoys 
(being white with a black anchor painted thereon), located op- 
posite (1) the Lower Coal Pier, (2) prolongation of Porter 
Street, and (3) Dickinson Street; this anchorage not to extend 
south of the Lower Coal Pier Wharf (1) buoy, or north of the 
Dickinson Street (3) buoy. 

The buoys are located as follows : 

Buoy No. 1. Placed on a prolongation of the lower coal 
pier at Greenwich Point, Philadelphia, to mark the lower limit 
of the anchorage ground, which is to the eastward of the buoy. 

Buoy No. 2. Placed on a prolongation of Porter Street, 
Philadelphia, and about midway of the anchorage to mark the 
anchorage ground, which is to the eastward of the buoy. 

Buoy No. 3. Placed on a prolongation of Dickinson Street, 
Philadelphia, to mark the upper limit of the anchorage ground, 
v.'hich is to the eastward of the buoy. 



COOPER POINT ANCHORAGE 

In the channel between Cooper Point and Petty Island so 
as not to interfere with vessels going to or from Cooper Creek. 



PORT RICHMOND ANCHORAGE 

East of the main ship channel, between the prolongation 
of lines drawn from the lower and upper ends of Petty Island, 
as marked by two anchorage buoys (being white with a black 
anchor painted thereon). 

The buoys are located as follows : 

Buoy No. 1. Placed off lower end of Petty Island, and 
marks the lower limit of the anchorage ground, which is to 
the eastward of the buoy. 

Buoy No. 2. Placed off Petty Island, o])posite Pier G, 
Port Kichmoml. Philadelphia, about midway of the anchorage 
ground, which is to the eastward of llie buoy. 



67 

The aucliorage groimd extends to the head of Petty Island, 
Ihe outer limits being the prolongation of a line drawn from 
Buoy No. 1 through Buoy No. 2. 

As day marks to indicate approximately the east and west 
limits of the said Port Kichmond anchorage, there is erected 
near each end of Petty Island a i)ost about 18 feet higli, bearing 
at its summit a blackboard with the letter A painted thereon 
in white. 

2. War vessels of the United States and of foreign nations, 
and pleasure yachts, with permission of the Commissioners of 
Navigation, may anchor in such location as not to interfere 
with the navigation of the river. 

3. Vessels must not anchor at any place in the channel of 
the Kiver Schuylkill, nor lie at any wharf in that river more 
than two abreast, without the permission of the Commissioners 
of Navigation. 

4. All vessels at anchor in the Port of Philadelphia shall 
keep their sails furled during the night and regulation riding 
lights exhibited. 

5. Vessels going into the stream after discharging and 
expecting to remain more than five (5) running days, will be 
required to report to the Commissioners of Navigation for 
anchorage berth, and will have to moor if directed. 

6. Permits may be granted by the Commissioners of Navi- 
gation to wrecking plants to anchor outside the anchorage 
limits of the Port of Philadelphia for the purpose of recovering 
sunken property subject to supervision. Such plants must 
comply with the navigation laws in regard to lights, sig- 
nals, etc., and must, if possible, move in ample time to give 
safe and clear passage to arriving and departing vessels. 

7. If the Commissioners of Navigation direct the removal 
of any vessel which lies in the Harbor of the Port of Philadel- 
phia, and the vessel is not promptly moved as directed, they 
may cause the vessel to be moved at the expense of the Master 
or owners thereof, and if said Master or owners neglect or re- 
fuse on demand to pay such an expense, the Commissionpis of 
Navigation may recover the amount in an action of contract. 



68 

8. A vessel under one hundred and fifty feet register length, 
when at anchor, shall carry forward, where it can best be seen, 
but at a height not exceeding twenty feet above the hull, a 
white light in a lantern constructed so as to show a clear, 
uniform and unbroken light, visible all around the horizon, at 
a distance of at least one mile. 

9. A vessel of one hundred and fifty feet or upward in 
register length, when at anchor, shall carry in the forward 
part of the vessel, at a height of not less than twenty and not 
exceeding forty feet above the hull, one such light, and at or 
near the stern of the vessel, and at such a height that it shall 
be not less than fifteen feet lower than the forward light, an- 
other such light. 

10. Should any of the prescribed anchorages in the Port of 
Philadelphia become congested vessels may be required to 
moor, and if necessary to make fast alongside of other vessels 
already anchored. 

11. Vessels hauled into any wharf or dock, or alongside of 
other vessels lying at any wharf or dock, must be made fast 
to the shore with proper lines, with sufficient fenders between 
them and the inside vessels, and shall, when so ordered by the 
Commissioners of Navigation, have their jib-booms, booms, 
yards, davits and bumpkins, if any, rigged in, their lower yards 
topped and anchors either a cock-bill or at the hawse-pipe, as 
most convenient. 

12. When fasts of vessels extend across a dock so as to 
obstruct passing vessels, the captain or person in charge shall, 
when so ordered by the Commissioners of Navigation, cause 
the fasts to be slackened or cast oft". 

13. Vessels lying at the ends of piers, so as to obstruct the 
passage to the adjoining docks, must move or slack their lines 
when necessary to accommodate other vessels entering or leav- 
ing the docks. 

14. Vessels lying alongside of a wharf, and not taking in 
or dischraging cargo, must make way for and permit other 
vessels that want to load or unload cargo to come inside next 
to wharf. 



69 

15. No dock shall be uimeeessaiil}' obstructed by a vessel 
so as to prevent the loading or unloading of cargo by another 
vessel. 

16. Vessels that increase their width by using ballast-logs, 
pontoons, or other devices of like nature, must move to accom- 
modate other vessels, when so ordered by the Commissioners 
of Navigation, and shall pay the expense of moving such other 
vessels that have to be moved to allow the vessel with the 
above appliances to enter or leave dock. 

17. All sea -going vessels at anchor, or when discharging, 
loading, laying up, or being repaired at any wharf in the Port 
of Philadelphia, are required to have and maintain a safe and 
convenient ladder, gang-plank or side steps for the use of per- 
sons having business on board such vessels. 

18. Steamers or sailing vessels loaded with Petroleum, 
Benzine, Benzol or Naphtha, made fast to any wharf in the 
City of Philadelphia, and vessels not so loaded, lying within 
150 feet of such steamers or sailing vessels, so loaded, and 
made fast to or lying within that distance of a wharf where 
Petroleum is kept or stored, are not allowed to have aboard 
any fire or light, lighted cigar or pipe of any kind whatsoever, 
unless by the written permission, duly signed by the owner, 
lessee or Superintendent of the Wharf, at which the vessel is 
lying, setting forth particularly the lights and fires that may 
be used, and the manner of using them. 

19. Tows of sea-going barges must be bunched above the 
mouth of the Schuylkill Kiver. (Regulation — Department of 
Commerce and Labor, December 7, 1908.) 

20. Vessels lying in berths in the Port of Philadelphia, in 
positions where they extend beyond the line of the pier, do so 
at their own risk, and may be held responsible for any damage 
that may occur by reason of their projecting into the stream. 

21. Vessels discharging ballast or any loose material must 
have tarpaulins from the ship's rail to the wharf or lighter, as 
the case may be, to prevent such material finding its way into 
the river or dock. 



70 

22. Vessels anchored in the Harbor of the Port of Phila- 
delphia requiring the assistance of the Police or Fire Boats 
shall display their national flag union down. 

23. The signal for the Commissioners of Navigation's Ten- 
der shall be the International code letter "N," set in the rig- 
ging or hoisted in a conspicuous place, or three short blasts 

and one long blast ( ) of steam whistle, to be 

continued until answeied. 



71 



SPEED REGULATIONS 



FOR VESSELS NAVIGATING THE DELAWARE RIVER BETWEEN 
BRISTOL AND MARCUS HOOK 



Made and promulgated by the Board of Commissioners of Navigalion, January 9, 
1914, and March 4, 1914, in accordance with authority conferred by an Act 
of Assembly of the State of Pennsylvania, approved May 9, 1913. 

1. Vessels shall not be worked or navigated in the Dela- 
ware Kiver between the Point House Wharf and Pier *'G" 
Port Eichmond at a greater rate of speed than eight (8) nauti- 
cal miles an hour, and such vessels shall navigate as far as is 
practicable from the pierhead line. This rule will not apply 
to river craft when thej are proceeding at more than three 
hundred feet (300') from the pierhead line. 

2. Vessels shall not be worked or navigated in the Delaware 
Kiver in front of the Navy Yard, between Red Buoy No. 44 off 
mouth of Schuylkill River and Red Buoy No. 46, off Eagle 
Point, at a greater rate of speed than twelve (12) nautical 
miles an hour. 

3. Vessels passing craft anchored in the stream between 
Marcus Hook and Bristol, loading, discharging or bunkering 
shall not navigate at a greater rate of speed than eight (8) 
nautical miles an hour, 

4. Vessels shall not be worked or navigated in the Delaware 
River off Chester or Marcus Hook at a greater rate of speed 
than twelve (12) nautical miles an hour. 

5. When vessels are moored to the ends of piers at Marcus 
Hook, lying paiallel with the river, ]»assing vessels shall not 
exceed a speed of eight (8) nautical miles an hour. 



72 



PENALTY 

That every master, officer, or other person or persons having 
charge of any vessel navigating the Delaware Kiver and its 
navigable tributaries, who shall violate any rule regulating 
the speed of vessels, made and promulgated by the said com- 
missioners, he or they so offending, shall forfeit and pay a 
sum, not exceeding fifty dollars for the first offence, and not 
less than seventy-five dollars, nor more than one hundred dol- 
lars, for each subsequent ofl'ence, to be sued for and recovered 
with costs of suit, by the president of said commissioners, for 
the use of the Commonwealth, before any magistrate of the 
City of Philadelphia or Justice of the Peace of the proper 
county. 



73 



REGULATIONS FOR THE USE OF THE MAIN SHIP CHANNEL OF 
THE DELAWARE RIVER BELOW PHILADELPHIA 



'Prescribed by the Secretary of War under authority of Sectian 4 of the Act of Cor\gTiss 
of August 18, 1894. as Amended by Section II of the Act of June 13. 1902 

1. Steamers without tows passing the dredges shall uot have a spi-cd 
greater than 6 miles an hour, and their propelling machinery shall be 
stopped when immediately abreast of the dredges, and while passing over 
the breast and quarter lines of the dredge. 

Steamers with tows passing the dredges shall not have a speed greater 
than 6 miles an hour, and their propelling machinery shall be stopped while 
passing over the breast and quarter lines of the dredge; but they may start 
their propelling machinery if necessary between these lines. 

2. Vessels using the channel shall pass the dredges on the side designated 
from the dredge by the signals prescribed in paragraph 7 of these regula- 
tions . 

3. Vessels drawing less than 12 feet of water must keep outside of the 
buoys marking the ends of mooring lines of dredges. 

4. Vessels must not anchor on the ranges of stakes or other marks placed 
for the guidance of the dredges. 

5. Vessels must not run over or disturb stakes or other marks placed 
for the guidance of dredges. 

6. Dredges and operating plant, in the prosecution of the work, must 
not obstruct any part of the channel unnecessarily. 

7. Dredges shall display by day a black ball three (3) feet in diameter 
at the end of a horizontal spar extending to the line of the side of the 
dredge's hull, and at a height not less than thirty (30) feet above the water, 
the ball to be set on the side of the dredge on which it is desired approach- 
ing vessels shall pass. 

Dredges shall display by night one white light on a stalY in the middle 
of the dredge, and at least thirty (30) feet above the water, to serve as 
the regulation anchor light, and four (4) red lights suspended in a vertical 
line from the outer end of the horizontal spar used by day for the suspen.sion 
of the black ball, the lights to be set on the side of the dredge on which it 
is desired approaching vessels shall pass. If approaching vessels may pass 
on either side of the dredge, no day mark shall be displayed, and by night 
the four (4) red lights shall be displayed in a vertical line directly under 
the above mentioned white light. 

8. The breast and stern anchors of the dredges shall bo marked or 
buoyed so as to be plainly visible to passing vessels. 

9. While vessels in the channel are passing, all lines running across the 
channel from the dredge on the passing side must be entirely slacked. 

U. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, 

Philadelphia, October 18, 1905. 



74 



DISTANCE AND TIDE TABLE FOR THE PORT OF PHILADELPHIA 
AND DELAWARE RIVER AND BAY 



Corrected by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, November, 1909 



The following table, in the first column, gives the distance from Chestnut Street 
Pier, Philadelphia. 

The hours and minutes given in the second column applied to the time of high water 
at Philadelphia, as recorded in the Tide Tables published by the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, will give appro.ximately tlie time of high water at the places named. 



Port Richmond Elevator, Philadelphia 

Cooner's Point N T -! "'^ Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, 
l^oopers point, iN. J- | oflf Callowhill Street, Philadelphia,.. 

Chestnut Street Pier, Philadelphia, 

Washington Avenue Wharf, Phila. (foot of Wash. Ave.), 

Kaighn's Point, N. J. (off Reed Street, Philadelphia), 

Greenwich Point, Philadelphia (off lower R. R. dock), 

League Island Navy Yard (off center of dock), 

Girard Point, Philadelphia, 

Point Breeze Oil Works, Schuylkill Riv. (off upper end of 

wharf) 

Gibson's Point, Schuylkill River (off upper end of wharf),.. 

Chestnut Street Wharf (Schuylkill River) 

Billingsport, N. J., 

Opposite Esslngton, Pa. (on line with Dupont wharf), 

Chester, Pa. (Market Street wharf) 

Schooner Ledge, Delaware River (between buoys), 

Marcus Hook, Pa. (off principal street) 

Cherry Island Range Light (front), 

Wilmington, Del., entrance to Christiana Creek (on range 

with light) , 

Deep Water Point, N. J. (on line with W. & N. R, R. 

wharf) , 

New Castle, Del. (on line with Kelly's Point), 

Fort Delaware (wharf abeam) 

Reedy Island (off Tide Indicator), 

Liston's Point (abeam) 

Bombay Hook Light (abeam), 

Ship John Light (abeam) 

Cross Ledge Light (abeam), 

Maurice River Light (abeam) 

Fourteen Foot Bank Light (abeam), 

Brandywine Shoal Light (abeam), 

Cape Henlopen (north end of Cape abeam), 

Overfalls Light Vessel 

Five Fathom Bank Light Vessel 

Northeast End Light Vessel, 

From Chestnut Street Pier, Philadelphia to Cape May, N. 
J. (Bay Shore Wharf) via Ricords Channel, 

To Cape Henlopen (north end of Cape), 

From Cape Henlopen to Cape May (Bay Shore Wharf) via 
through Channel, 



Nauti- 
cal 

Miles 



2.3 
0.7 
0.5 
. 0.0 
0.9 
1.1 
2.9 
5.(5 
l.'c 

9.5 
10.6 
13.0 

9.4 
11.7 
14.6 
16.4 
17.7 
23.2 



Correction for 
Tides 

+ Signifies Add 

— Signifies 

Subtract 



+ 

+ 
+ 



25.4 I — 



26.4 
29.7 
34.0 
38.8 
44.8 
48.0 
54.6 
65.3 
68.6 
72.5 
77.3 
88.2 
89.2 
110.2 
121.4 

85.4 
88.7 

10.4 



H 



M 



12 
03 
03 
00 
06 
07 
19 
30 
34 

24 
23 
14 
53 
05 
24 
30 
33 
00 

04 

16 
32 
53 
11 
32 
44 
09 
47 
09 
12 
26 
51 
55 
41 
43 



AVERAGE DURATION AND HEIGHT OF TIDES. 



Philadelphia 

New Castle 

Delaware Breakwater 

Compass Variation 



Duration. 




Height. 




Rise. 


Fall. 


Spring 


Neap 


Average 


b. m. 


h. m. 


Tides. 


Tides. 


Tides. 


4.53 


7.32 


5.6 feet. 


4.9 feet. 


5.3 feet. 


5.14 


7.11 


6.6 " 


5.4 " 


6.0 " 


6.19 


6.06 


5.0 " 


3.4 " 


4.2 " 


at Philadelphia, 


8° Westerly. 







75 



TABLE OF AVERAGE DISTANCES IN NAUTICAL MILES BETWEEN 
PHILADELPHIA AND LEADING PORTS OF THE WORLD 



'Prepared by tht Hydrographic Office, United States Nao\), June, 191 1 



PHILADELPHIA AND 

Aden 6,669 

Algiers 3,768 

Ambrose Channel Liglitsbip 215 

Antwerp 3,542 

Ascension Island 4,469 

Baliia 4,136 

Baltimore 372 

Barljadoes 1,839 

Batoum 5,757 

Bermuda 730 

Bombay, via Suez 8,320 

Boston 475 

Bordeaux 3,445 

Bremen 3,784 

Brunswick 717 

Buenos Aires 5,918 

Calcutta, via Suez 9,976 

Cape Henry 222 

Cape Breton 910 

Cape Town 6,861 

Cape Race 1,175 

Cardenas 1,117 

Cardiff 3,214 

Charleston 597 

Christiansand 3,894 

Cienfuegos 1,654 

Colombo, via Suez 8,760 

Colon 1,949 

Constantinople 5,172 

Copenhagen 4,084 

Cork 3,041 

Curacao 1,759 

Delaware Breakwater 88 

Demerara 2,223 

Diamond Shoal Lightship 317 

Fayal 2,240 

Five Fathom Bank Lightship 110 

Fort de France 1,724 

Funchal 2.907 

Galveston 1,857 

Gibraltar 3,353 

Glasgow (Northern) 3,104 

Glasgow (Southern) 3,252 

Guayaquil, via Panama 2,785 

Guayaquil, via Magellan 10,262 

Halifax 746 

Hamburg 3,804 

Havana 1,156 

Havre 3,348 

Hong Kong, via Suez 11,762 

Hull 3.618 

Jacksonville 7.j8 

Key West 1,098 

Kingston 1,446 

Leith 3,795 

Liverpool 3,263 

London 3,497 

Lulea 5 012 



PHILADELPHIA AND 

Marseilles 4,OtO 

Matanzas 1,137 

Melbourne, via Suez 13.143 

Mobile 1,628 

Montevideo 5,804 

Nantucket Lightship 365 

Naples 4,337 

Narvik 4,002 

Nassau 929 

Newport News 249 

New Orleans 1.681 

New York 235 

Norfolk 250 

Overfalls Lightship 89 

Oran 3.586 

Pernambuco 3,743 

Plynioutli 3.189 

Port Antonio 1,395 

Portland, Me 521 

Portland, Ore., via Magellan 13,804 

Portland, Ore., via Panama 5,857 

Port Said 5, 271 

Port of Spain 1,938 

Providence 355 

Punta Arenas, via Magellan 6,994 

Quebec 1,470 

Queenstown 3, 032 

Hio Janeiro 4,817 

Rotterdam 3,543 

Sabine 1,825 

Sable Island 821 

Sandy Hook 217 

San Francisco, via Magellan 13,182 

San Francisco, via Panama 5,237 

San Juan 1,395 

Santa Marta 1,75J 

Santiago 1,321 

Seattle, via Magellan 13.990 

St. Helena 5,169 

St. John, N. B 690 

St. John's, N. F 1,254 

St. Lucia 1,753 

St. Thomas 1,434 

St. Vincent, C. V 3.012 

Savannah 670 

Shanghai, via Suez 12,518 

Singapore, via Suez 10,311 

Southampton 3,. "09 

Stettin 4,346 

Stockholm 4,631 

Suez 5,359 

S.vdney, N. S. W., via Suez 13,605 

Tampico 1,994 

Trieste 5,039 

Valparaiso, via Magellan 8,427 

Valparaiso, via Panama 4,608 

Wabana, N. F 1,304 

AVellington. N. Z., via Suez 14,521 

Yokohama , via Suez 13, 213 



Table Distances from Panama. Nautical 

Miles 

Philadelphia to Colon, via Crooked Island and Windward Island 1,940 

I^oston 2, 142 

New York j 974 

Baltimore j g^j^ 




(76) 



f 



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